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High fired porcelain along with X-rays have really destroyed the ability to test some porcelain.
You are left with the possibly of a genuine antique porcelain with drill holes which render it almost worthless, along with the loss of the cost of testing and time involved.
The book covers Chinese ceramic art from the neolithic period to the 20th century.
Each of the fifteen chapters begins with a chronological table and ends with a catalog.
The nearly 500 illustrations are carefully integrated with the text.
Large porcelain items may have some warping at the edges and sagging in the middle. Center of turned porcelain bases should have a protrusion (nipple) on the top and bottom. Glaze can contain a variety of random large and small bubbles, although some imperial items can have similar sized smaller bubbles. Antique porcelain can have large and small random bubbles and or very large solitary bubbles. Newer porcelains usually have consistent size bubbles throughout the glaze. Antique Ming porcelain will usually have a thick glaze without stenciling marks being obvious. Qing porcelain will have stencil marks evident through a thinner glaze appearing as a groove or indentation under the painting. Antique porcelain will appear discolored or cloudy when looking through it when viewed in front of a bright light. Porcelain should be of the highest quality usually without cracks. imperial porcelain clay appears glassy at the exposed areas where new porcelain appears opaque and or chalky looking. Some crackle can appear on over-glaze colors and in clear glazes of older wares and may include black flecks. Footrims should have a slight brownish red color on unglazed areas from iron leaching out or from the saggars during the kiln firing. Porcelain base colors can shade from bone color to dark reddish brown. The lighter the brown color staining the higher the quality the porcelain and saggar clay. The darker the brown color usually means poorer quality porcelain clay and or saggar clay. Bases on vases sometimes have large glazed spots on the bottom underside from interior glaze leakage through drying cracks. Foot-rims can have sand adhering to them, especially on the sides. Base cracking can occur during the drying stage or kiln firing on older porcelains and is not necessarily a flaw. Imperial foot rims are often filed flat before or after kiln firing to keep the item from rocking back and forth when being used. Blurring of the design can occur from kiln overheating and can occur outside or inside usually on the sides. Heaping and piling is often present on antique porcelains. Underglaze blue is often burned black, silver or brown where it breaks through the glaze and is exposed to oxygen. Fakes often can simulate heaping or piling, refer to item a, above. Imperial porcelain should have a overall beauty and look of being made by a professional. Flowers and trees should look freely painted as though you can see the wind blowing them. Branches should contain curves and not straight lines and end in a complete breakage. Foliage should be evenly spaced throughout the porcelain and be finely painted with multi colored leaves and branches. Dragon scales or bird feathers should be curved and painted in, not straight just lines with dots e. Hollow lines or missing parts of a line can point to new item. Remember that even though marks can be flawed they can still be on Imperial porcelain. Painting on porcelain is said to be like painting on chalk so look at the mark and porcelain the same way. Look for micro use scratches on any old porcelain, especially in non-handled areas. Impressed marks were often used by the Japanese on porcelain to imitate the Chinese. The Chinese did carve or impress marks on items made to copy older archaic styles. Because electric light was not present long ago, ancient colors will seem different in natural light unlike new colors.
Dragon teeth should be pointed and not flat like horse teeth. Dragons should appear flowing and powerful, not stiff looking. Designs should not contain mismatched animals, dragons or plants that do not belong together. Concentric curves should be parallel and without crossover or running together especially on waves. Birds should have their feet wrapped around branches, they should look realistic. People should look at each other and express some kind of emotion as though they are interacting with each other, not staring off into space. Always look for the most perfectly painted art possible which will usually have one or more flaws. Examine a porcelain as though it is a fine oil painting and disqualify the ones that appear to be painted fast and poorly. Marks should be centered on the design of the porcelain so when reading the mark and flipping 180 degrees the front should be centered. always look for high quality marks when possible, these were painted by professionals, check them with photos of museum porcelain marks. carved marks should look professionally made and straight and uniform. Marks can have similar characters but be painted several different ways and styles that should match the style and type of porcelain they are on. This is especially noticeable with Ding yao porcelain and other white wares.
When seen during daylight hours they will appear one color and as night falls will gradually change color and appear a totally different color hue from very slight impurities within the clear glaze. Look for thicker lines that appear more blurry especially along the bottoms rather than clean crisp lines. Any antique should have small use scratches from being used or handled when viewed using a 10X loop.Color can change from white to a dark amber color or have a red hue when seen from different angles. The more perfectly made the porcelain is, the higher degree that it's imperial and conversely the thicker and more poorly made the porcelain is the better chance its not imperial. The above statement excludes warping and porcelain firing cracks which is actually a good thing to see. Some porcelains can take years to make from start to finish, These include over glaze types such as Doucai, Fencai, Wucai etc. Imperial clays are mixed and left to ferment for up to seven years before use. Porcelains can be left to dry for up to a year before painting and kiln firing. Several years can pass before one vase will be completed even though several hundred were actually made at one time, and hundreds may have been destroyed for each successful vase made. Over-glaze porcelains may be fired many many times to fix all the colors before completion, each time this can add more color to the iron stain on the base or foot. There is a major difference between Imperial workshop porcelains and all other porcelains. Imperial workshop porcelain is made of the best clay and glazes. The painting on Imperial porcelain can be so perfect it looks like a modern decal, except there is depth to the vivid color and glaze on the antique ones. The best Chinese artists were used at the Imperial workshop so look for the most beautiful items. Imperial porcelain is often very glassy looking and very smooth to the touch. Any handles or finials should look finely carved or painted. Imported cobalt ore appears bright purplish blue when viewed from a photograph using a flash or when viewed in direct sunlight reflecting back off the item. Every item that I have listed to identify porcelain does have its exceptions and or caveats.Education is really the key to knowing Imperial porcelain.I would always suggest buying excellent books with large color photos of the items with marks.Also it would help to take a pottery making class or two to really understand the actual processes involved in making porcelains.I would like to say please avoid T/L testing of porcelains if at all possible.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating